Board of Directors

Stelios Papadopoulos, Ph.D. (Chairman)

Stelios Papadopoulos, Ph.D. has served on our Board of Directors since 2008 and was appointed as Chairman of the Board in June 2014. Dr. Papadopoulos is a member of our Finance and Audit Committee and our Science and Technology Committee. He is also the Chairman of Exelixis, Inc., a drug discovery and development company that he co-founded in 1994. Previously, he was an investment banker with Cowen & Co., LLC, a financial services company, focusing on the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sectors, from 2000 until his retirement as Vice Chairman in August 2006. Prior to joining Cowen & Co., Dr. Papadopoulos served for 13 years as an investment banker at PaineWebber, Inc., a financial services company, where he was most recently Chairman of PaineWebber Development Corp., a PaineWebber subsidiary focusing on biotechnology.

Dr. Papadopoulos is also a member of the board of directors of BG Medicine, Inc. and is Chairman of Regulus Therapeutics, Inc., both life sciences companies.

George A. Scangos, Ph.D.

George A. Scangos, Ph.D. is our Chief Executive Officer and has served in this position and as a member of our Board of Directors since July 2010. From 1996 to July 2010, Dr. Scangos served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of Exelixis, Inc., a drug discovery and development company, where he continues to serve on the board. From 1993 to 1996, Dr. Scangos served as President of Bayer Biotechnology, where he was responsible for research, business development, process development, manufacturing, engineering and quality assurance of Bayer’s biological products. Before joining Bayer in 1987, Dr. Scangos was a Professor of Biology at Johns Hopkins University for six years. Dr. Scangos served as non-executive Chairman of Anadys Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from 2005 to July 2010 and was a director of the company from 2003 to July 2010. Dr. Scangos served as the Chair of the California Healthcare Institute in 2010 and was a member of the Board of the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development until 2010.

He is also a member of the Board of Directors of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a member of the Board of Trustees of the Boston Museum of Science and the Biomedical Science Careers Program, and a member of the National Board of Visitors of the University of California, Davis School of Medicine. Dr. Scangos is currently an Adjunct Professor of Biology at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Scangos has also been appointed to the board of directors of Agilent Technologies, Inc., a provider of bioanalytical and electronic measurement solutions, effective in September 2014.

Alexander J. Denner, Ph.D.

Alexander J. Denner, Ph.D., joined our Board of Directors in 2009 and currently serves on our Compensation and Management and Development Committee and our Corporate Governance Committee. Dr. Denner is a founding partner and Chief Investment Officer of Sarissa Capital Management LP, a registered investment advisor formed in 2012. Sarissa Capital focuses on improving the strategies of companies to better provide shareholder value. From 2006 to 2011, Dr. Denner served as a Senior Managing Director at Icahn Capital, an entity through which Carl C. Icahn conducts his investment activities. Prior to that, he served as a portfolio manager at Viking Global Investors, a private investment fund, and Morgan Stanley Investment Management, a global asset management firm. Dr. Denner is also a director of VIVUS Inc. and Ariad Pharmaceuticals, Inc., both biopharmaceutical companies.

Ms. Caroline D. Dorsa

Caroline D. Dorsa joined our Board of Directors in 2010 and is a member of our Finance and Audit Committee. Ms. Dorsa has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Public Service Enterprise Group Incorporated, a diversified energy company, since April 2009 and served on its board of directors from 2003 to April 2009. From February 2008 to April 2009, she served as Senior Vice President, Global Human Health, Strategy and Integration at Merck & Co., Inc., a pharmaceutical company. From November 2007 to January 2008, Ms. Dorsa served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Gilead Sciences, Inc., a life sciences company. From February 2007 to November 2007, she served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Avaya, Inc., a telecommunications company. From 1987 to January 2007, Ms. Dorsa held various financial and operational positions at Merck & Co., Inc., including Vice President and Treasurer, Executive Director of U.S. Customer Marketing and Executive Director of U.S. Pricing and Strategic Planning.

Ms. Nancy L. Leaming

Nancy L. Leaming joined our Board of Directors in 2008 and serves as Chair of our Finance and Audit Committee. Ms. Leaming has been an independent consultant since 2005. From 2003 to 2005, she served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of Tufts Health Plan, a provider of healthcare insurance. From 1986 to 2003, Ms. Leaming served in several executive positions at Tufts Health Plan, including President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer.

Ms. Leaming is also a member of the boards of directors of Hologic, Inc., a provider of diagnostic and surgical products, and Edgewater Technology, Inc., a technology management consulting firm.

Richard C. Mulligan, Ph.D.

Richard C. Mulligan, Ph.D., joined our Board of Directors in 2009 and is a member of our Science and Technology Committee. Dr. Mulligan is a founding partner of Sarissa Capital Management LP, a registered investment advisor formed in 2012. Sarissa Capital focuses on improving the strategies of companies to better provide shareholder value. In 2013, Dr. Mulligan became the Mallinckrodt Professor of Genetics, Emeritus, at Harvard Medical School, after serving as the Mallinckrodt Professor of Genetics and Director of the Harvard Gene Therapy Initiative since 1996. Prior to that, he was Professor of Molecular Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and the Chief Scientific Officer of Somatix Therapy Corporation, a drug discovery and development company that he founded. Dr. Mulligan was named a MacArthur Foundation Fellow in 1981.

Mr. Robert W. Pangia

Robert W.Pangia has served on our Board of Directors since 1997 and serves as Chair of our Compensation and Management Development Committee. Mr. Pangia has been the Chief Executive Officer of Ivy Sports Medicine, LLC, a medical device company, since July 2011. He has also been a partner in Ivy Capital Partners, LLC, the general partner of Ivy Healthcare Capital, L.P., a private equity fund specializing in healthcare investments, since 2003. From October 2007 to October 2009, he served as the Chief Executive Officer of Highlands Acquisition Corp., a special purpose acquisition company. From 1996 to 2003, Mr. Pangia was self-employed as an investment banker. From 1987 to 1996, he held various senior management positions at PaineWebber, a financial services company, including Executive Vice President and Director of Investment Banking for PaineWebber Incorporated of New York, member of the board of directors of PaineWebber, Inc., Chairman of PaineWebber Properties, Inc., and member of several of PaineWebber’s executive and operating committees.

Mr. Brian S. Posner

Brian Posner joined our Board of Directors in 2008 and is a member of our Corporate Governance Committee and our Finance and Audit Committee. Mr. Posner has been a private investor since March 2008 and is the President of Point Rider Group LLC, a consulting and advisory services firm within the financial services industry. From 2005 to March 2008, Mr. Posner served as the President, Chief Executive Officer and co-Chief Investment Officer of ClearBridge Advisors LLC, an asset management company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Legg Mason. Prior to that, Mr. Posner co-founded Hygrove Partners LLC, a private investment fund, in 2000 and served as its Managing Partner for five years. He served as a portfolio manager and an analyst at Fidelity Investments, a financial services company, from 1987 to 1996 and, from 1997 to 1999, at Warburg Pincus Asset Management/Credit Suisse Asset Management where he also served as co-Chief Investment Officer and Director of Research.

Mr. Posner is also a member of the boards of directors of Arch Capital Group Ltd., an insurance company, BG Medicine, Inc., a life sciences company, and is a member of the board of trustees of AQR Mutual Funds, an investment fund.

Eric K. Rowinsky, M.D.

Eric K. Rowinsky, M.D., has served on our Board of Directors since 2010 and is a member of our Compensation and Management Development Committee and our Science and Technology Committee. Dr. Rowinsky has been the Head of Research and Development and Chief Medical Officer of Stemline Therapeutics, Inc., a biotechnology company focusing on the discovery and development of therapeutics targeting cancer stem cells, since January 2012. Dr. Rowinsky is also an Adjunct Professor of Medicine at New York University and has been an independent consultant since January 2010. Prior to that, he was the Chief Medical Officer of Primrose Therapeutics, Inc., a start-up biotechnology company focusing on the development of therapeutics for polycystic kidney disease, from August 2010 until its acquisition in September 2011. From 2005 to December 2009, he served as the Chief Medical Officer and Executive Vice President of ImClone Systems Incorporated, a life sciences company. From 1996 to 2004, Dr. Rowinsky held several positions at the Cancer Therapy & Research Center’s Institute for Drug Development, including Director of the Institute and Director of Clinical Research. During that time, he held the SBC Endowed Chair for Early Drug Development and Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. From 1988 to 1996, Dr. Rowinsky was an Associate Professor of Oncology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and on the staff of the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Dr. Rowinsky is also a member of the boards of directors of Coronado Biosciences, Inc. and Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., both life sciences companies.

The Honorable Lynn Schenk

Lynn Schenk joined our Board of Directors in 1995 and serves as Chair of our Corporate Governance Committee and is a member of our Compensation and Management Development Committee. Ms. Schenk is an attorney and consultant in private practice with extensive public policy and business experience. She is also a trustee of the Scripps Research Institute, a director of the California High Speed Rail Authority Board and a trustee of the University of California, San Diego Foundation. From 1999 to 2003, she served as Chief of Staff to the Governor of California, during which time she led the effort to create the Institutes for Science and Innovation at the University of California. From 1993 to 1995, Ms. Schenk was a Member of the United States House of Representatives, representing San Diego, California and served on the House Energy & Commerce Committee with a special emphasis on biotechnology. From 1980 to 1983, she was the California Secretary of Business, Transportation and Housing during which she formed the California Commission on Industrial Innovation.

Ms. Schenk is also a member of the board of directors of Sempra Energy, an energy services and development company.

Stephen A. Sherwin, M.D.

Stephen A. Sherwin, M.D. joined our Board in 2010 and serves as Chair of our Science and Technology Committee and is a member of our Corporate Governance Committee. Dr. Sherwin currently divides his time between advisory work in the life science industry and patient care and teaching in his specialty of medical oncology. He is a Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and a volunteer Attending Physician in Hematology-Oncology at San Francisco General Hospital. Dr. Sherwin previously served as the Chairman of Ceregene, Inc., a life sciences company that he co-founded, from 2001 until its acquisition by Sangamo Biosciences, Inc. in 2013. He was also a co-founder and chairman of Abgenix, Inc., an antibody company which was acquired by Amgen Inc. in 2006. From 1990 to October 2009, he served as the Chief Executive Officer of Cell Genesys, Inc., a life sciences company, and was its Chairman from 1994 until the company’s merger with BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in October 2009. Prior to that, he held various positions at Genentech, Inc., a life sciences company, most recently as Vice President, Clinical Research. Dr. Sherwin is board certified in internal medicine and medical oncology and currently serves as a Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

Dr. Sherwin is also a member of the boards of directors of Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc., Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Verastem, Inc. and Vical Inc., all of which are clinical-stage life science companies. He also serves as Chairman Emeritus of the Biotechnology Industry Organization.