George A. Scangos, Ph.D. is our Chief Executive Officer and has served in this position and as a member of our Board of Directors since July 2010. From 1996 to July 2010, Dr. Scangos served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of Exelixis, Inc., a drug discovery and development company, where he continues to serve on the board. From 1993 to 1996, Dr. Scangos served as President of Bayer Biotechnology, where he was responsible for research, business development, process development, manufacturing, engineering and quality assurance of Bayer’s biological products. Before joining Bayer in 1987, Dr. Scangos was a professor of Biology at Johns Hopkins University for six years, where he is still an adjunct professor. Dr. Scangos served as non-executive Chairman of Anadys Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from 2005 to July 2010 and was a director of the company from 2003 to July 2010. He also served as the Chair of the California Healthcare Institute in 2010 and was a member of the Board of the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development until 2010.
Dr. Scangos is Treasurer of the Board of Directors of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), a member of the Board of Trustees of the Boston Museum of Science and the Biomedical Science Careers Program, and a member of the National Board of Visitors of the University of California, Davis School of Medicine. Dr. Scangos is also on the Board of Directors of Agilent Technologies, Inc., a provider of bioanalytical and electronic measurement solutions.
Susan H. Alexander is our Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary and has served in these positions since December 2011. Prior to that, from 2006 to December 2011, Ms. Alexander served as our Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary. From 2003 to January 2006, Ms. Alexander served as the Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of PAREXEL International Corporation, a biopharmaceutical services company. From 2001 to 2003, Ms. Alexander served as General Counsel of IONA Technologies, a software company. From 1995 to 2001, Ms. Alexander served as Counsel at Cabot Corporation, a specialty chemicals and performance materials company. Prior to that, Ms. Alexander was a partner at the law firms of Hinckley, Allen & Snyder and Fine & Ambrogne. Ms. Alexander received her B.A. from Wellesley College and her J.D. from Boston University School of Law.
Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas Ph.D. is our Senior Vice President, Chief Scientific Officer and has served in this position since May 2013. Prior to his appointment in May 2013, Dr. Artavanis-Tsakonas served as our interim Chief Scientific Officer while on sabbatical from Harvard Medical School from March 2012 to May 2013. Dr. Artavanis-Tsakonas has been a Professor of Cell Biology at the Harvard Medical School since 1999. Prior to that, from 1999 through 2012, he was Professor, Collège de France, serving as Chair of Biology and Genetics of Development, and from 1999 to 2007, he was also the K.J. Isselbacher- P. Schwartz Professor at the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Director of Developmental Biology and Cancer at the Harvard Medical School. Dr. Artavanis-Tsakonas is the scientific co-founder of Exelixis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a drug discovery and development company, Cellzome, a drug discovery and development company, and Anadys Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. Dr. Artavanis-Tsakonas obtained his M.Sc. in Chemistry from the Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich and a Ph.D. in Molecular Biology from the University of Cambridge, England. His postdoctoral research was completed at Biozentrum, University of Basel and Stanford University.
Paul J. Clancy is our Executive Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer and has served in these positions since August 2007. Mr. Clancy joined Biogen, Inc. in 2001 and has held several senior executive positions with us, including Vice President of Business Planning, Portfolio Management and U.S. Marketing, and Senior Vice President of Finance with responsibilities for leading the Treasury, Tax, Investor Relations and Business Planning groups. Prior to that, he spent 13 years at PepsiCo, a food and beverage company, serving in a range of financial and general management positions. Mr. Clancy serves on the board of directors of Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. Mr. Clancy received his B.S. in Finance from Babson College and M.B.A. from Columbia University.
John G. Cox is our Executive Vice President, Pharmaceutical Operations and Technology and has served in this position since June 2010. Mr. Cox joined Biogen Idec in 2003 and has held several senior executive positions with us, including Senior Vice President of Technical Operations, Senior Vice President of Global Manufacturing, and Vice President of Manufacturing and General Manager of Biogen Idec’s operations in RTP. Prior to that, Mr. Cox held a number of senior operational roles at Diosynth Inc., a life sciences manufacturing and services company, where he worked in technology transfer, validation and purification. Prior to that, Mr. Cox focused on the same areas at Wyeth Corporation, a life sciences company, from 1993 to 2000. Mr. Cox serves on the board of directors of Repligen Corporation, a life sciences company. Mr. Cox received his B.S. in Biology from Arizona State University, M.B.A. from the University of Michigan and M.S. in Cell Biology from California State University.
Kenneth DiPietro is our Executive Vice President, Human Resources and has served in this position since January 2012. Mr. DiPietro joined Biogen Idec from Lenovo Group, a technology company, where he served as Senior Vice President, Human Resources from 2005 to June 2011. From 2003 to 2005, he served as Corporate Vice President, Human Resources at Microsoft Corporation, a technology company. From 1999 to 2002, Mr. DiPietro worked as Vice President, Human Resources at Dell Inc., a technology company. Prior to that, he spent 17 years at PepsiCo, a food and beverage company, serving in a range of human resource and general management positions. Mr. DiPietro serves on the board of directors of InVivo Therapeutics Corporation, a medical device company. Mr. DiPietro received his B.S. in Industrial and Labor Relations from Cornell University.
Steven H. Holtzman is our Executive Vice President, Corporate Development and has served in this position since January 2011. Prior to that, Mr. Holtzman was a founder of Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a drug discovery and development company, where he served as Chair of the Board of Directors from company inception in 2001 to November 2012, Executive Chair of the Board of Directors in 2010 and as Chief Executive Officer from 2001 to December 2009. From 1994 to 2001, Mr. Holtzman was Chief Business Officer at Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. From 1986 to 1994, he was a founder, member of the Board of Directors and Executive Vice President of DNX Corporation, a biotechnology company. From 1996 to 2001, Mr. Holtzman served as presidential appointee to the national Bioethics Advisory Commission. Mr. Holtzman received his B.A. from Michigan State University and B.Phil. graduate degree from Oxford University which he attended as a Rhodes Scholar.
Adriana (Andi) Karaboutis is Executive Vice President, Technology and Business Solutions and has served in this position since September 2014. Prior to joining Biogen Idec, Ms. Karaboutis was Vice President and Global Chief Information Officer (CIO) of Dell, Inc. where she was responsible for leading an efficient and innovative global IT organization focused on powering Dell as an end-to-end technology solutions provider. Prior to joining Dell in 2010, Ms. Karaboutis spent over 20 years at General Motors and Ford Motor Company in various international leadership positions including computer-integrated manufacturing, supply chain operations, and information technology.
Ms. Karaboutis received a B.S. in Computer Science from Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. She is a member of the Wayne State College of Engineering Hall of Fame, served as president of the Michigan Council of Women in Technology (MCWT) from 2008-2010 and was a board member of the Manufacturing Executive Leadership Forum from 2009-2014. Ms. Karaboutis is also on the board of directors of Advance Auto Parts and a member of the advisory board for InformationWeek.
Tony Kingsley is our Executive Vice President, Global Commercial Operations and has served in this position since November 2011. From January 2010 to November 2011, Mr. Kingsley served as our Senior Vice President, U.S. Commercial Operations. Prior to joining Biogen Idec, he served as Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Gynecological Surgical Products business at Hologic, Inc., a provider of diagnostic and surgical products, from October 2007 to November 2009, and as Division President, Diagnostic Products at Cytyc Corp., a provider of diagnostic and medical device products, from July 2006 to October 2007. In those roles, Mr. Kingsley ran commercial, manufacturing and research and development functions. From 1991 to 2006, he was a Partner at McKinsey & Company focusing on the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and medical device industries. Mr. Kingsley received his B.A. in Government from Dartmouth College and M.B.A. from Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.
Adam Koppel, M.D., Ph.D. is our Senior Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer, responsible for leading corporate strategy and portfolio management and has served in this position since May 2014. Previously, Dr. Koppel was a Managing Director of Brookside Capital, the public equity affiliate of Bain Capital. Prior to Brookside Capital, he served as Associate Principal with McKinsey & Company where he consulted to companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Dr. Koppel has served as a member of PTC Therapeutics' Board of Directors since March 2013 and also serves on the Board of Directors of Trevena, Inc. Dr. Koppel received an M.D. and Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, an M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a B.A. from Harvard University.
Alfred W. Sandrock, Jr., M.D., Ph.D. is our Group Senior Vice President, Chief Medical Officer and has served in this position since May 2013. From February 2012 to April 2013, Dr. Sandrock served as our Senior Vice President, Chief Medical Officer. Prior to that, Dr. Sandrock held several senior executive positions since joining us in 1998, including Senior Vice President of Development Sciences, Senior Vice President of Neurology Research and Development and Vice President of Clinical Development, Neurology. Dr. Sandrock received his B.A. in Human Biology from Stanford University, an M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and a Ph.D. in Neurobiology from Harvard University. He completed an internship in Medicine, a residency and chief residency in Neurology, and a Clinical Fellowship in Neuromuscular Disease and Clinical Neurophysiology (electromyography) at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Douglas E. Williams, Ph.D. is our Executive Vice President, Research and Development and has served in this position since January 2011. Prior to that, Dr. Williams held several senior executive positions at ZymoGenetics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, including Chief Executive Officer and a director from January 2009 to October 2010, President and Chief Scientific Officer from July 2007 to January 2009, and Executive Vice President, Research and Development and Chief Scientific Officer from 2004 to July 2007. Prior to that, he held leadership positions within the biotechnology industry, including Chief Scientific Officer and Executive Vice President of Research and Development at Seattle Genetics Inc., a biotechnology company, from 2003 to 2004, and Senior Vice President and Washington Site Leader at Amgen Inc., a biotechnology company, in 2002. Dr. Williams also served in a series of scientific and senior leadership positions over a decade at Immunex Corp., a biopharmaceutical company, including Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, Senior Vice President of Discovery Research, Vice President of Research and Development and as a director. Prior to that, Dr. Williams served on the faculty of the Indiana University School of Medicine and the Department of Laboratory Medicine at the Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Williams serves on the board of directors of Regulus Therapeutics Inc. and Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, both life sciences companies. Dr. Williams received his B.S. in Biological Sciences from the University of Massachusetts, Lowell and Ph.D. in Physiology from the State University of New York at Buffalo, Roswell Park Memorial Institute Division.